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One of the most confusing things when starting out trading lossless audio is the source/transfer information that appears in the .txt file that accompanies each fileset. Each .txt file should have this information that lists the lineage of the recording. With a little practice, you can get a sense of what the recording will sound like even before listening to it. It just takes some experience. Source information usually breaks into four parts: (1) the source and mics, (2) the recording method, (3) the transfer to a digital medium (if necessary) and (4) transformation into a CD and compression to a lossless format. Usually, the older a recording, the simpler the information, because no one remembers all of the details and recording rigs were simpler. Today, tapers keep track of everything down to the type of cables they use to plug in their mics. There’s no standard way to do things, and a lot gets abbreviated. (A list of common abbreviations appears below.) But, source listings usually look something like the examples that follow. Here’s a basic one: S:MR>DAT>CDR>EAC>WAV>SHN ||Source:||Soundboard|| ||Hardware:||A Reel to Reel deck, model unknown|| ||Playback:||Reel to Reel to a DAT deck|| ||Transfer:||DAT to CDR, copied to a computer using EAC to .wav file format and then converted to .shn format|| Here’s the same file information with a little more detail: S:7” MR > D-5 > HHb CDR-800 > Plextor 16/10/40A > EAC > Soundforge (tracking) > mkwACT > SHN ||Source:||Soundboard|| ||Hardware:||A Reel to Reel deck, model unknown, running a 7" reel tape|| ||Playback:||Reel to Reel to Fostex D-5 DAT deck|| ||Transfer:||D-5 DAT to HHb CD Burner, disc put in a Plextor CD Drive, copied to a computer using EAC to .wav file format, broken into tracks using Soundforge, and converted to .shn format with mwkACT|| Finally, here’s the same file information with even more detail. Even if you can’t tell what everything means, you should be able to tell that the recording was made on a reel to reel deck, played back on another reel to reel to a DAT, and then played from another DAT machine to a CD burner and copied onto a computer: S:MR Teac 2300 (7” 16-track); Uher 4000 > D-5 (w/Oade +15dB input gain mod); DA-P1 w/ master DAT > HHb CDR-800; Plextor 16/10/40A > EAC (secure mode) > Soundforge (48k > 44.1k, tracking) > mkwACT > SHN Following is a list of common abbreviations, sorted by category. If you can't find what you're looking for, you can also look [http://www.moelinks.com/random/source/ here]. '''General Terms''' ||PCM||Pulse Code Modulation (an early form of digital recording)|| ||AD, A/D, A>D||Analog to Digital Converter|| ||DA, D/A, D>A||Digital to Analog Converter|| ||WAV||Windows file format for PCM data that can be written to an audio CD|| ||AIFF||Mac file format for PCM data that can be written to an audio CD|| ||SHN||older lossless compression format ((Shorten))|| ||((FLAC))||modern lossless compression format Free Lossless Audio Codec|| ||APE||modern but limited-platform lossless compression format (Monkey's Audio)|| ||MKW, mkwACT||mkwACT.exe, a program used to convert between WAV and SHN; rarely seen, experimental Win-only lossless compression format .mkw|| ||OGG||[http://www.vorbis.com/ Ogg Vorbis], an open source recording format, sometimes lossless, sometimes not|| ||AAC||Apple's proprietary recording format, sometimes lossless and sometimes not (even when it's supposed to be)|| '''Terms Describing the Source of a Recording''' ||AUD||Audience|| ||DAUD||Digital Audience|| ||SBD||Soundboard|| ||DSBD||Digital Soundboard|| ||FM||Recording from an FM Broadcast|| ||Pre-FM||Recorded/copied from the source that was then broadcast on the radio (i.e., not a copy recorded from the FM airwaves)|| ||Matrix, Ultramatrix||SBD feed mixed with live mic (AUD) source, mixed by the soundman at the show; sometimes homemade post-show in digital age. note that the proper technical term for post-show mixes should simply be “mix”|| ||BBD||“Betty Board.” Betty Cantor did sound for the Grateful Dead in the 1970s|| ||FOB||Front of Board -- recording location. Same as:|| ||BTP||Back to Paul (Languedoc), Phish's soundman. Usually the same as:|| ||OTS||Outside Taper Section -- OTS could mean hanging from the rafters, but it usually means FOB|| '''Manufacturers and Types of Microphones''' Note: many mics consist of a body and a capsule that contains the actual microphone. The capsule is designed to pick up sound in a particular pattern, e.g., cardioid, omnidirectional, etc. For some useful diagrams and explanation, click [http://www.moelinks.com/random/source/mic.html here] or [http://www.audio-technica.com/using/mphones/guide/pattern.html here]. ||'''[http://www.adk.cc/ ADK]'''||Mic manufacturer|| ||A51-TL||switchable pattern diaphragm mic|| ||A51-S||large diaphragm cardioid mic|| ||A51-S-LE||paired cardioid mic|| ||'''[http://www.akgusa.com/ AKG]'''||Mic manufacturer|| ||460 series||older mic shells|| ||480 series||newer mic shells|| ||ck61||cardoid mic capsule|| ||ck62||omni-directional mic capsule|| ||ck63||hypercardioid mic capsule|| ||46x||Series 460 mic w/ ck6x capsule|| ||48x||Series 480 mic w/ ck6x capsule|| ||390||another series, aka "blue lines"|| ||ck91, ck93||capsules for the 390 mics|| ||39x||390 Series w/ ck9x capsule|| ||c1000||mic w/ cardioid/hypercardioid switch|| ||c3000||improved c1000 mic|| ||c414 II||mic w/ changeable capsule settings|| ||'''AMS'''||Mic manufacturer|| ||||ST-250|| ||||Soundfield|| ||'''[http://www.audio-technica.com/ Audio Technica]'''||Mic manufacturer|| ||4041||cardioid mic|| ||4051||cardioid mic|| ||D1000e||c. 1974|| ||D190e||c. 1974|| ||853||stealth mic, also sold as Sound Professionals|| ||933||stealth mic, also sold as Sound Professionals|| ||7000||wireless mic series|| ||'''B&K (Bruel & Kjaer)''' or '''[http://www.dpamicrophones.com/eng_pub/ DPA (Danish Pro Audio)]'''||Mic Manufacturer|| ||40xx||high end mics (4011, 4021, 4022, 4023)|| ||4061||stealth mics, also known as "high end binaurals" or HEB's|| ||'''[http://www.core-sound.com/ Core Sounds]'''||Mic manufacturer|| ||CSB||"low profile" mics|| ||LCB||omnidirectional "low profile" mics|| ||LCSC||directional "low profile" mics|| ||'''[http://www.mxlmics.com/ Marshall]'''||Mic manufacturer|| ||MXL 600||cardioid mic|| ||MXL V67G||larger capsule mic|| ||MXL 2001||cardioid diaphragm mic|| ||MXL V2001-P||larger capsule mic|| ||'''[http://www.earthwks.com/ Earthworks]'''||Mic manufacturer|| ||SR-69||cardioid mic|| ||SR-71||cardioid mic|| ||SR-77||cardioid mic|| ||SR-78||hypercardioid mic|| ||QTC-1||omni-directional mic|| ||'''[http://www.microtechgefell.de/ Microtech Gefell]'''||Mic manufacturer|| ||m300||mic|| ||sms2000||mic|| ||'''[http://www.nakamichi.com Nakamichi]'''||Mic manufacturer|| ||Nak300||mic|| ||Nak700||mic|| ||cp4||capsule|| ||'''[http://www.neumannusa.com Neumann]'''||Mic manufacturer|| ||ak30||omni-directional capsule|| ||ak40||cardioid capsule|| ||ak43||sub-cardioid capsule|| ||ak50||hypercardioid capsule|| ||KM1xx||Km100 body w/ akxx capsule|| ||KM184||cardioid condenser mic|| ||KM100||condenser mic body|| ||M150||tube microphone|| ||TLM 170||large-diaphragm, multi-setting mic|| ||U87||large-diaphragm, multi-setting mic|| ||U89i||large-diaphragm, multi-setting mic|| ||'''[http://www.oktava.com/ Oktava]'''||Mic manufacturer|| ||MC012||condenser mic with cardioid/hypercardoid/omnidirectional capsules - also called MC012 or MK012-01|| ||MC319||large diaphragm condenser cardioid mic|| ||'''[http://www.rodemicrophones.com/ Rode]'''||Mic manufacturer|| ||NT2||switchable cardioid/omnidirectional mic|| ||NT2||stereo xy cardioid mic|| ||'''[http://www.schoeps.de/ Schoeps]'''||Mic manufacturer|| ||cmc_||mic body (cmc3, cmc4, cmc6)|| ||mk2||omni-directional capsule|| ||mk21||sub-cardioid capsule|| ||mk4||cardioid capsule|| ||mk4v||vertical cardioid capsule|| ||mk41||hypercardioid capsule|| ||mk41v||vertical hypercardioid capsule|| ||cmc_/mkxx||cmc_ body w/ mkxx capsule|| ||cmc_xx||cmc_ body w/ mkxx capsule|| ||m222||tube-style mic|| ||'''[http://www.sennheiserusa.com Sennheiser]'''||Mic manufacturer|| ||441||mic|| ||'''[http://www.shure.com Shure]'''||Mic manufacturer|| ||KSMxx||capsule mics|| ||KSM32||cardioid condenser mic|| ||KSM44||mult-setting condenser mic|| ||'''Sony'''||Mic manufacturer|| ||ECM 270||c. 1973|| ||ECM 250||mic(?) c. 1973|| ||ECM MS-907||single-body stereo mic|| ||ECM MS-957||pro version of the MS-907|| '''Terms Describing Microphone Placement''' ||ORTF||Mic placement technique originated by the Office de Radio Télévision Française|| ||X-Y||Mic placement technique|| ||DIN||Mic placement technique|| ||M-S||Mid-Side - Mic placement technique|| ||OTS||Outside the Stacks - Mic placement technique|| ||90 deg.||Mic placement technique|| ||Blumlein||Mic placement technique|| ||FOB||Front of Board ( Regarding Mic Placement)|| ||DFC||Dead F*****g Center|| ||BTP||Back to Paul Languedoc, Phish’s soundman. Means FOB at a Phish show.|| '''Terms Describing the Recording Medium''' ||DAT||Digital Audio Tape recorder|| ||R, !RtR, R2R, RR||Reel to Reel tape recording|| ||C(x)||Cassette (xth generation copy)|| ||MC, C(0)||Master Cassette|| ||VHS||VHS or Betamax tape recorder|| ||MD||Minidisc recorder|| '''Hard Disk / Solid State Recorders''' ||NJB3 or JB3 or NJ3||Creative Labs Nomad Jukebox 3 Hard Disk Recorder|| ||FR-2||Fostex FR-2 Hard Disk / Compact Flash Recorder|| ||iHP-120||iRiver iHP-120 Hard Disk Recorder|| ||PMD-670||Marantz Compact Flash / Microdrive Recorder|| ||Neuros||Nueros Hard Disk Recorder|| ||SD-7xx||Sound Devices 722/744 Hard Disk / Compact Flash Recorders|| '''Analog Cassette Decks and Reel to Reel Decks''' ||Nak||Abbreviation for Nakamichi, cassette deck manufacturer|| ||Dragon||Expensive, top end Nakamichi cassette deck|| ||CR-7A||Nakamichi cassette deck|| ||F995||Sony cassette deck c. 1970|| ||TC-152||Sony cassette deck c. 1974|| ||Uher 4000||Reel to Reel deck c. 1974|| ||Teac 2300||Reel to Reel deck c. 1974|| '''DAT and CDR Recorders, Players and Manufacturers''' ||D-100||Sony D-100|| ||M-1||Sony M-1 DAT deck|| ||Dx||Sony DAT deck (D3, D7, D8, D10)|| ||HHb||DAT and CDR burner manufacturer|| ||PDR-1000||HHb "Portadat" portable DAT deck|| ||CDR xxx||HHb pro audio CD burner (CDR 850, CDR 830 !BurnIt, CDR 800)|| ||PCM-Rxx||Sony DAT decks (R300, R500)|| ||D-x||Fostex DAT decks (D-5, D-10)|| ||DA-xx||Tascam DAT decks (DA-P1, DA-20, DA-30)|| ||SV-3xxx||Panasonic DAT decks (SV-3700, SV-3800, SV-3900)|| ||DA-Rxx||Casio DAT decks (DA-R100)|| '''A>D Converters''' ||AD xxxx||Apogee 500e (20 bit), 1000 (24 bit) & 5000 (24 bit) A>D Converters(the 1000 also has preamp)|| ||AD2k||Sonic/Benchmark 24 bit A>D Converter|| ||ADC-20||Graham Patten 20-bit A>D Converter|| ||DMIC-20||Graham Patten 20-bit A>D Converter|| ||MMe||Apogee !MiniMe AD converter (also Mic Preamp)|| ||Lucid AD9624||24 bit A/D converter|| ||SBM-1||Sony “Super Bit Mapper” 20-bit AD Converter|| '''Mic Preamps & Pre-amp/A>D Converter Combos''' ||AD1000||Apogee pre-amp and A>D converter|| ||DM20 or DMIC20||Graham Patten 20-bit A>D Converter|| ||Inbox||Zefiro/Denecke Inbox|| ||MMe||Apogee !MiniMe A>D converter|| ||MP-2||Sound Devices MP-2|| ||mXXX||Oade pre-amp (m148, m248)|| ||MV100||Beyer pre-amp|| ||PSP-2||Rare pre-amp made by EAA|| ||PSP-3||AETA Audio Preamp|| ||SX-M2||Sonosax SX-M2 Pre-amp|| ||mod UA-5||Edirol UA-5 modified by Oade for standalone use - also W(arm) mod and P(resence) mod|| ||V2||Lunatec V2|| ||V3||Lunatec V3 (also has A>D Converter)|| ||VMS-xx||Schoeps VMS series preamp|| '''Pre-amp / A>D Converter / Computer Interface''' ||USB-Pre||Sound Devices USB Pre|| ||UA-5||Edirol/Roland UA-5|| ||Delta DIO 2496||M-Audio 24 bit/96 kHz Digital Soundcard|| ||Audiophile 2496||M-Audio 24 bit/96 kHz Digital Soundcard|| ||Audiophile USB||M-Audio 24 bit/96 kHz Digital USB Soundcard|| ||VXPocket||Digigram VXPocket 24-bit/48 kHz Digital PCMCIA Soundcard|| '''Cables and Connectors''' ||[http://www.oade.com Oade]||Manufacturer of high quality audio cables|| ||[http://www.audio-magic.com/ AudioMagic]||Manufacturer of high quality audio cables|| ||Optical||Type of digital cable/connection|| ||Coax||Type of digital cable/connection|| ||K5LU XLR||Schoeps XLR cable|| '''CD Mastering Software''' ||[http://soundforge.com/ Soundforge], SF||Popular and very versatile audio mastering program|| ||[http://www.steinberg.net WaveLab]||Popular and very versatile audio mastering program|| ||[http://www.samplitude.com/ Samplitude]||Another audio mastering program|| ||```CoolEdit```, CE, CE Pro||CD mastering program, by Syntrillium, no longer made. Bought by Adobe and now called [http://www.adobe.com/products/audition/main.html Audition]|| ||[http://www.exactaudiocopy.org/ EAC]||Exact Audio Copy (software to copy CDs to a computer)|| ||CDWAV||[http://www.cdwave.com CD Wave] (software to cut your WAV into individual tracks)|| ||[http://audacity.sourceforge.net Audacity]||Open Source audio mastering program|| ||xACT||Mac OSX Audio Compression Tool|| ||SHNTool||software to fix Sector Boundaries, convert and split audio files|| ||[http://www.steinberg.net Cubase]||Another high-powered audio mastering program|| ||dbpoweramp||A program that converts among formats|| ||DAW||generic term "digital audio workstation"|| '''Other Stuff''' ||CO2||Midiman CO2 Coaxial > Optical Converter|| ||CO3||Midiman CO3 Coaxial > Optical Converter|| ||DAW||Digital Audio Workstation|| ||SCMS||Serial Copy Management System (Determines if a digital copy, e.g., DAT or CD, can be copied)|| ''See also: AcronymGlossary, [http://www.moelinks.com/random/source/ moelinks Source Guide], [http://recordinglair.com/record/location/micplace.htm Location Recording]''
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